Portugal in 29 historical maps
On ancient maps the Latin name Iberia was used to identify the Spanish peninsula (Spain and Portugal). It is derived from the Greek word Iberes, meaning "the Celtic people of Spain". But it may also refer to the river Ebro in Spain. Most likely the name Portugal means "beautiful port". The first part refers to the Latin word Portus. The second part may be derived from the Greek word kallis. Spain and Portugal were already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The coastline was drawn in more detail on 14th century Portolan charts (nautical maps). The first separately printed map of Portugal appeared in the 16th century (about 1560). Lisbon became the capital city in 1260. Early settlements date back to Roman times. In the 15th century it was a center for exploring and mapping all remote corners of the (new) world, in particular South-America. A map of the city was included in the first European town atlas, published by Hogenberg & Braun in 1572 onwards.