Scotland in 44 historical maps
The origin of the name Scotland is uncertain. Most likely it was introduced by the Greeks and Romans. It may be derived from the Greek word Scotos, a term applied to the Gaels (Celtic tribe). Or from the Latin word Sco(t)ti, which means "dark", referring to the foggy climate. By the end of the 11th century the Late Latin word Scotia (land of the Scots) was being used to refer to (Gaelic-speaking) Scotland north of the river Forth. Caledonia is also an old Latin name for Scotland, referring tot the Caledonii tribes. It is possibly based on a Brythonic word for "hard" or "tough" (represented by the modern Welsh caled). Being part of the British Isles, Scotland was already described by Ptolemy in his Geographia (150AD). The accompanying maps were worked out again by European cartographers at the end of the 15th century. The first (printed) separate maps of Scotland appeared in the 16th century. The city Edinburgh was founded in the 10th/11th century. It became the capital in the 15th century. Early settlements date back to pre-historic times and in the 6th century it was known as Din Eidyn. An (inset) map of the city was included in the town atlas of Hogenberg & Braun, published in 1572 onwards.